Anuradhapura, is a major city in Sri Lanka. It is the capital city of North Central Province, Sri Lanka and the capital of Anuradhapura District. Anuradhapura is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, famous for its well-preserved ruins of ancient Sri Lankan civilization. It was 3rd capital of the Kingdom of Rajarata after Tambapanni and Upatissa Nuwara.
The city, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies 205 km north of the current capital Colombo in Sri Lanka's North Central Province, on the banks of the historic Malvathu Oya. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and one of the eight World Heritage Sites of Sri Lanka.
From the 4th century BC, it was the capital of Sri Lanka until the
beginning of the 11th century AD. During this period it remained one of
the most stable and durable centers of political power and urban life in
South Asia. The ancient city, considered sacred to the Buddhist world,
is today surrounded by monasteries covering an area of over sixteen
square miles (40 km).
Although according to historical records the city was founded in the 5th century BC, the archaeological data put the date as far back as the 10th century BC. Very little evidence was available about the period before the 5th century BC (i.e. the protohistoric period), though excavations have revealed information about the earlier inhabitants of the city.
Further excavations in Anuradhapura have uncovered information about
the existence of a protohistoric habitation of humans in the citadel.
The protohistoric Iron Age which spans from 900 to 600 BC, marked the
appearance of iron technology, pottery, the horse, domestic cattle and
paddy cultivation. In the time period 700 to 600 BC the settlement in
Anuradhapura had grown over an area of at least 50 ha.
The city was strategically situated of major ports northwest and
northeast, it was surrounded by irrigable and fertile land. The city was
also buried deep in the jungle providing natural defence from invaders.
The Lower Early Historic period, spanning from 500 to 250 BC, is studied on the lines of the chronicles. During this time King Pandukabhaya formally planned the city, with gates, quarters for traders etc. The city at the time would have covered an area of 1 square kilometre which makes it one of the largest in the continent at the time.
The layout of Anuradhapura as described in the Mahavansa:
The administrative and sanitary arrangements be made for the city and the shrines he provided indicate that over the years the city developed according to an original master plan. His son Mutasiva, succeeded to the throne. During his reign of sixty years, he maintained Anuradhapura as his capital and further laid out the Mahameghavana Garden which was to play an important role in the early history of Buddhism in Sri Lanka. It was in the period of his successor, his son Devanampiya Tissa, that Buddhism was first introduced this island 236 years after the passing away of the Buddha. Emperor Ashoka in India was a contemporary of Devanampiya Tissa. Historically this period is considered to extend from 250 to 210 BC. This is the point at which a kingship began and a civilization developed based on one of the most significant religions of South Asia, Buddhism.
With the introduction of Buddhism, the city gained more prominence and the great building era began. The Mahavansa states that King Kutakannatissa built the first city wall to a height of seven cubits with a moat in front of the wall. This fortification was further enlarged by raising the wall a further 11 cubits to 18 cubits by King Vasabha. The king also added fortified gatehouses at the entrances of which the ruins can be seen to date. The Mahavamsa also states that soothsayers and architects were consulted in the construction.
During the late Anuradhapura period, the royal family and nobility of Sri Lanka strongly supported Buddhism. As such, they frequently commissioned works of art and donated these items to Buddhist temples. In return, the temple and local Buddhist community supported the king's rule. Art works featuring depictions of Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva of Mercy and Compassion, became increasing popular
The city's popularity grew both as a ritual centre and as the administrative centre, a large population was attracted to the city for permanent settlement. Thus the living facilities were improved to accommodate the expanding population. King Vasabha constructed many ponds which were fed by a network of subterranean channels which were constructed to supply water to the city. Tissa and Abhayavapi tanks were built, the Nuwara weva was built and the Malwatu Oya was dammed to build the Nachchaduwa wewa which was 4,408 acres (17.84 km2) in size.
Parks were also provided in the city. The Ranmasu Uyana below the bund of Tissavapi or Tisa weva
was one such, but it was strictly reserved for the members of the royal
family. Health care and education were two other aspects to which the
authorities paid attention. There were several hospitals in the city. In
the 4th century King Upatissa II provided quarters and homes for the crippled and the blind. King Buddhadasa
(337-365 AD), himself a physician of great repute, appointed a
physician to be in charge of every ten villages. For the maintenance of
these physicians, one tenth of the income from the fields was set apart.
He also set up refuges for the sick in every village. Physicians were
also appointed to look after the animals. Kassapa V (914-923 AD) founded a hospital close to the southern gate of Anuradhapura. General Sena
in the 10th century is believed to have built a hospital close to the
ceremonial street (Managala Veediya). The history of medical care began
early, for in the 4th century BC King Pandukhabaya,
in the course of sanitizing the town constructed a hospital. A large
workforce was entrusted with the task of keeping the city clean.
Anuradhapura attained its highest magnificence about the commencement of the common era. The city had some of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world, situated in the dry zone of the country the administration built many tanks to irrigate the land. Most of these tanks still survive.
According to carbon dating, the ruins excavated were from the 10th century BC
The ruins consist of three classes of buildings, dagobas, monastic buildings, and pokunas. The dagobas are bell-shaped masses of masonry, varying from a few feet to over 1100 ft (340 m) in circumference. Some of them contain enough masonry to build a town for twenty-five thousand inhabitants. Remains of the monastic buildings are to be found in every direction in the shape of raised stone platforms, foundations and stone pillars. The most famous is the Brazen Palace erected by King Dutugamunu about 164 BC. The pokunas are bathing-tanks or tanks for the supply of drinking water, which are scattered everywhere through the jungle. The city also contains a sacred Bo-Tree, which is said to date back to the year 245 BC.